The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that the legal recognition of intersex people is firstly about access to the same rights as other men and women, when assigned male or female; secondly it is about access to administrative corrections to legal documents when an original sex assignment is not appropriate; and thirdly it is not about the creation of a third sex or gender classification for intersex people as a population but it is, instead, about self-determination.
It also called for the criminalization of deferrable intersex medical interventions. Gender may be organized differently in different cultures. In some non-Western cultures, gender is not binary and one can cross freely between male and female. This is seen as a mediation between the spirit and mundane worlds. This may be a result of the notion of reincarnation , which reduces not only gender categorization but also sex and species, allowing for more fluid and mutable categorization.
There are countless other cultures in which the third gender is seen as an intermediate being rather than as a movement from one conventional sex to the other, either male to female or vice versa. In a study of people in the United States who thought themselves to be members of a third gender, Ingrid M. Sell found that they typically felt different from the age of 5. Sell also discovered similarities between the third genders of the East and those of the West. Nearly half of those interviewed were healers or in the medical profession.
A majority of them, again like their Eastern counterparts, were artistic enough to make a living from their abilities. The capacity to mediate between men and women was a common skill, and third genders were oftentimes thought to possess an unusually wide perspective and the ability to understand both sides. In recent years, some Western societies have begun to recognize non-binary or genderqueer identities.
The Open Society Foundations published a report, License to Be Yourself in May , documenting "some of the world's most progressive and rights-based laws and policies that enable trans people to change their gender identity on official documents". People tend to identify a third sex with freedom from the gender binary, but that is not necessarily the case.
The Pelvis: Structure, Gender And Society
The report concludes that two or three options are insufficient: "A more inclusive approach would be to increase options for people to self-define their sex and gender identity. Before the sexual revolution of the s, there was no common non-derogatory vocabulary for non-heterosexuality ; terms such as "third gender" trace back to the s. One such term, Uranian , was used in the 19th century to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men. Its definition was later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females and a number of other sexual types.
Ulrich developed his terminology before the first public use of the term "homosexual", which appeared in in a pamphlet published anonymously by Karl-Maria Kertbeny — The word Uranian Urning was derived by Ulrichs from the Greek goddess Aphrodite Urania , who was created out of the god Uranus' testicles ; it stood for homosexuality, while Aphrodite Dionea Dioning represented heterosexuality. According to some scholars, the West is trying to reinterpret and redefine ancient third-gender identities to fit the Western concept of sexual orientation.
In Redefining Fa'afafine : Western Discourses and the Construction of Transgenderism in Samoa , Johanna Schmidt argues that the Western attempts to reinterpret fa'afafine, the third gender in Samoan culture, make it have more to do with sexual orientation than gender. She also argues that this is actually changing the nature of fa'afafine itself, and making it more "homosexual".
A Samoan fa'afafine said, "But I would like to pursue a master's degree with a paper on homosexuality from a Samoan perspective that would be written for educational purposes, because I believe some of the stuff that has been written about us is quite wrong. In How to become a Berdache: Toward a unified analysis of gender diversity , Will Roscoe writes that "this pattern can be traced from the earliest accounts of the Spaniards to present-day ethnographies.
What has been written about berdaches reflects more the influence of existing Western discourses on gender, sexuality and the Other than what observers actually witnessed. Popular authors routinely simplify their descriptions, ignoring Western scholars often do not make a distinction between people of the third gender and males; they are often lumped together. The scholars usually use gender roles as a way to explain sexual relations between the third gender and males.
- Essential MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists.
- DONATE TO IPPS!
- Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science!
- Defensive Handgun Skills: Your Guide to Fundamentals for Self-Protection?
- HANDBOOK FOR DIRECTORS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.
- The Flow of Funds in Theory and Practice: A Flow-Constrained Approach to Monetary Theory and Policy!
For example, when analyzing the non-normative sex gender categories in Theravada Buddhism , Peter A. Jackson says it appears that within early Buddhist communities, men who engaged in receptive anal sex were seen as feminized and were thought to be hermaphrodites. Some writers suggest that a third gender emerged around AD in England : the male sodomite. These writers described themselves and those like them as being of an "inverted" or "intermediate" sex and experiencing homosexual desire, and their writing argued for social acceptance of such sexual intermediates.
Throughout much of the twentieth century, the term "third sex" was a common descriptor for homosexuals and gender nonconformists, but after the gay liberation movements of the s and a growing separation of the concepts of sexual orientation and gender identity , the term fell out of favor among LGBT communities and the wider public. With the renewed exploration of gender that feminism, the modern transgender movement and queer theory has fostered, some in the contemporary West have begun to describe themselves as a third sex again.
In Wilhelmine Germany , the terms drittes Geschlecht "third sex" and Mannweib "man-woman" were also used to describe feminists — both by their opponents  and sometimes by feminists themselves. In the novel Das dritte Geschlecht The Third Sex by Ernst Ludwig von Wolzogen, feminists are portrayed as "neuters" with external female characteristics accompanied by a crippled male psyche. Two-Spirit is a modern umbrella term used since by some indigenous North Americans to describe Native people   — gay , lesbian , bisexual and gender-variant individuals — who fulfill ceremonial roles in their communities.
In Mesopotamian mythology , among the earliest written records of humanity, there are references to types of people who are not men and not women. In a Sumerian creation myth found on a stone tablet from the second millennium BC , the goddess Ninmah fashions a being "with no male organ and no female organ", for whom Enki finds a position in society: "to stand before the king". In the Akkadian myth of Atra-Hasis ca.
References to a third sex can be found throughout the texts of India's three ancient spiritual traditions — Hinduism ,  [ self-published source ] Jainism  and Buddhism  — and it can be inferred that Vedic culture recognised three genders. The Vedas c. These are also spelled out in the Kama Sutra c. A third sex is discussed in ancient Hindu law , medicine, linguistics and astrology. The foundational work of Hindu law, the Manu Smriti c.
- Why Do Men Run Faster Than Women??
- The soviet war on religion;
- Account Options.
- Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security X!
- Tic Disorders, Trichotillomania, and Other Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Behavioral Approaches to Analysis and Treatment!
- What Is Bone Cancer??
A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female child by the prevalence of the female; if both are equal, a third-sex child or boy and girl twins are produced; if either are weak or deficient in quantity, a failure of conception results. The earliest Tamil grammar, the Tolkappiyam 3rd century BC refers to hermaphrodites as a third "neuter" gender in addition to a feminine category of unmasculine males.
In Vedic astrology , the nine planets are each assigned to one of the three genders; the third gender, tritiya-prakrti , is associated with Mercury , Saturn and in particular Ketu. In the Puranas , there are references to three kinds of devas of music and dance: apsaras female , gandharvas male and kinnars neuter. The two great Sanskrit epic poems , the Ramayana and the Mahabharata ,  indicate the existence of a third gender in ancient Indic society. Some versions of Ramayana tell that in one part of the story, the hero Rama heads into exile in the forest.
Halfway there, he discovers that most of the people of his home town Ayodhya were following him.
COMPLICATIONS DURING CHILDBIRTH:
He told them, "Men and women, turn back", and with that, those who were "neither men nor women" did not know what to do, so they stayed there. When Rama returned from exile years later, he discovered them still there and blessed them, saying that there will be a day when they, too, will have a share in ruling the world. Contrary to what is often portrayed in the West, sex with male specifically receptive oral and anal sex was the gender role of the third gender, not their defining feature. Thus, in ancient India, as in present-day India, the society made a distinction between a third gender having sex with a man, and a man having sex with a man.
The latter may have been viewed negatively, but he would be seen very much as a man in modern western context, as 'straight' , not a third gender in modern western context 'gay'. In Plato's Symposium , written around the 4th century BC, Aristophanes relates a creation myth involving three original sexes: female, male and androgynous. The myth of Hermaphroditus involves heterosexual lovers merging into their primordial androgynous sex.
Other creation myths around the world share a belief in three original sexes, such as those from northern Thailand. Many have interpreted the " eunuchs " of the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean world as a third gender that inhabited a liminal space between women and men, understood in their societies as somehow neither or both.
The ancient Maya civilization may have recognised a third gender, according to historian Matthew Looper. Looper notes the androgynous Maize Deity and masculine Moon goddess of Maya mythology , and iconography and inscriptions where rulers embody or impersonate these deities. He suggests that the third gender could also include two-spirit individuals with special roles such as healers or diviners. Anthropologist and archaeologist Miranda Stockett notes that several writers have felt the need to move beyond a two-gender framework when discussing prehispanic cultures across mesoamerica ,  and concludes that the Olmec , Aztec and Maya peoples understood "more than two kinds of bodies and more than two kinds of gender.
Childhood training and ritual shaped, but did not set, adult gender, which could encompass third genders and alternative sexualities as well as "male" and "female.
The Pelvis Structure Gender And Society
Andean Studies scholar Michael Horswell writes that third-gendered ritual attendants to chuqui chinchay , a jaguar deity in Incan mythology , were "vital actors in Andean ceremonies" prior to Spanish colonisation. Horswell elaborates: "These quariwarmi men-women shamans mediated between the symmetrically dualistic spheres of Andean cosmology and daily life by performing rituals that at times required same-sex erotic practices. Their transvested attire served as a visible sign of a third space that negotiated between the masculine and the feminine, the present and the past, the living and the dead.
Their shamanic presence invoked the androgynous creative force often represented in Andean mythology. And in each important temple or house of worship, they have a man or two, or more, depending on the idol, who go dressed in women's attire from the time they are children, and speak like them, and in manner, dress, and everything else they imitate women.
With them especially the chiefs and headmen have carnal, foul intercourse on feast days and holidays, almost like a religious rite and ceremony. Historically, the Indigenous people of Illinois have decided the gender of their members based on their childhood behavior. If a male child used tools considered to be "women's tools", such as a spade or ax instead of a bow, they were considered to be third gender, feminine men. The modern, pan-Indian term for this role is " Two-Spirit ". Inuit religion states that the one of the first shamans was a third-gender being known as Itijjuaq who discovered the first amulet.
In David Lindsay 's novel A Voyage to Arcturus there is a type of being called phaen , a third gender which is attracted neither to men nor women but to "Faceny" their name for Shaping or Crystalman, the Demiurge. The appropriate pronouns are ae and aer. Kurt Vonnegut 's novel Slaughterhouse-Five identifies seven human sexes not genders in the fourth dimension required for reproduction including gay men, women over 65, and infants who died before their first birthday.
The Tralfamadorian race has five sexes. In Hinduism, Shiva is still worshipped as an Ardhnarishwara , i. The third genders have been ascribed spiritual powers by most indigenous societies. At the turn of the common era , male cults devoted to a goddess that flourished throughout the broad region extending from the Mediterranean to South Asia. It should also be mentioned of the eunuch priests of Artemis at Ephesus; the western Semitic qedeshim, the male "temple prostitutes" known from the Hebrew Bible and Ugaritic texts of the late second millennium; and the keleb, priests of Astarte at Kition and elsewhere.
Beyond India, modern ethnographic literature document gender variant shaman-priests throughout Southeast Asia , Borneo , and Sulawesi. Most, at some point in their history, were based in temples and, therefore, part of the religious-economic administration of their respective city-states. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 20 September Gender identities. Health care and medicine. Rights issues. Society and culture. Theory and concepts. By country. See also.